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Liquids and Solids

Topic Review on "Title":

Liquids and solids are condensed states of matter that have intermolecular forces.

Intermolecular forces
Physical attractions between separate molecules are intermolecular forces.  The weakest of these forces is present in all molecules, London Dispersion Forces.  It’s due to the temporary ganging up of electrons on one side of the molecule.  This creates a temporary dipole that can be attracted to other dipoles, temporary or permanent.  Molecules with a permanent dipole can also display Dipole-Dipole attractions, or Ion-Dipole attractions with an ion.  Since the ability to form these attractions isn’t temporary, as with London Dispersion Forces, dipole attractions are stronger.  When a hydrogen atom is bonded to a very electronegative atom, N, O or F, it forms a very strong dipole.  This extra strong dipole can form strong attractions with an N, O or F on another molecule, called Hydrogen Bonding, which is the strongest IMF.

Properties of liquids and solids
Liquids have definite volumes, but not definite shapes, the particles are free to move past each other and they are not very compressible.  Solids have definite volumes and shapes, the particles are not able to move past each other and they are not compressible at all.

Vapor Pressure
Vapor pressure is created when molecules on the surface of a solid or liquid have enough energy to escape the intermolecular forces and become a gas.  Once it is a gas, it can create pressure.  As temperature increases, more molecules have the minimum energy to evaporate, and vapor pressure increases.  At first, many molecules escape and the volume of the solid or liquid decreases.  But after a while, some begin to collide with the surface of the liquid and rejoin the liquid again.  Eventually equilibrium is established.

Solids Structures
Amorphous solids have no repeating structure.  Crystalline solids do have a pattern of repeating units.  Atomic solids have atoms as the repeating unit and can be metallic (electrons are shared in a large pool throughout the metal) or network (where each atom is covalently bonded to each other atom) solids.  Molecular solids have molecules that are all covalently bonded to one another.  Ionic solids have a network of ions arranged to maximize electrostatic attractions and minimize repulsions.

Phase Changes
During melting or boiling, intermolecular forces are broken.  During freezing or condensing, intermolecular forces are formed.  The melting/freezing point is when the vapor pressure of the solid and liquid are equal and the two states of matter are at equilibrium.  The boiling/condensing point is when the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure and is the temperature when the two states of matter are at equilibrium.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

Liquids and solids are condensed states of matter.  This tutorial introduces the intermolecular forces between molecules in the condensed states.  Properties, such as Vapor Pressure, are explained.  The various types of solid structure are shown.  Changes in state, and the energy associated with them, are also discussed.

Tutorial Features:

Specific Tutorial Features:

  • 3D visualizations of the solid state structures
  • Animations of intermolecular forces (such as the formation of a temporary dipole in London Dispersion Forces)
  • Animated visualization of Vapor Pressure
  • How do these questions look on the AP Exam?

 Series Features:

  • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts
  • Animated examples—worked out step by step
  • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:
  • Intermolecular Forces
    • London Dispersion Forces
    • Dipole-Dipole and Ion-Dipole forces
    • Hydrogen bonding
  • Properties of a liquid
  • Vapor pressure
  • Properties of solids
  • Solid structures
    • Amorphous solids
    • Atomic solids
      • Metallic
      • Network
    • Molecular solids
    • Ionic Solids
  • Phase change
    • Terms
    • Equilibriums
    • Energy associated with phase changes

See all 24 lessons in Advance Placement Chemistry, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:
Teach Yourself AP Chemistry Visually in 24 Hours

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