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Tissues of the Human Body

Topic Review on "Title":

Tissue in the human body:

  1. Epithelial: Is made of cells arranged in a continuous sheet with one or more layers, has apical & basal surfaces.
    • A basement membrane is the attachment between the basal surface of the cell & the underlying connective tissue.
    • Two types of epithelial tissues: (1) Covering & lining epithelia and (2) Glandular Epithelium.
    • The number of cell layers & the shape of the cells in the top layer can classify epithelium.

      • Simple Epithelium - one cell layer
      • Stratified epithelium - two or more cell layers
      • Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium - When cells of an epithelial tissue are all anchored to the basement Membrane but not all cells reach the apical surface.
      • Glandular Epithelium – (1) Endocrine: Release hormones directly into the blood stream and (2) Exocrine - Secrete into ducts.

  2. Connective: contains many different cell types including: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and adipocytes. Connective Tissue Matrix is made of two materials: ground substance - proteins and polysaccharides, fiber – reticular, collagen and elastic.

    Classification of Connective Tissue:
    • Loose Connective - fibers & many cell types in gelatinous matrix, found in skin, & surrounding blood vessels, nerves, and organs.
    • Dense Connective - Bundles of parallel collagen fibers& fibroblasts, found in tendons& ligaments.
    • Cartilage - Cartilage is made of collagen & elastin fibers embedded in a matrix glycoprotein & cells called chondrocytes, which was found in small spaces.
    • Cartilage has three subtypes:
      • Hyaline cartilage – Weakest, most abundant type, Found at end of long bones, & structures like the ear and nose,
      • Elastic cartilage- maintains shape, branching elastic fibers distinguish it from hyaline and
      • Fibrous Cartilage - Strongest type, has dense collagen & little matrix, found in pelvis, skull & vertebral discs.
  3. Muscle: is divided into 3 categories, skeletal, cardiac and smooth.
    • Skeletal Muscle – voluntary, striated, striations perpendicular to the muscle fibers and it is mainly found attached to bones.
    • Cardiac Muscle – involuntary, striated, branched and has intercalated discs
    • Smooth Muscle – involuntary, nonstriated, spindle shaped and is found in blood vessels & the GI tract.
  4. Nervous: Consists of only two cell types in the central nervous system (CNS) & peripheral nervous system (PNS):
    • Neurons - Cells that convert stimuli into electrical impulses to the brain, and Neuroglia – supportive cells.
    • Neurons – are made up of cell body, axon and dendrites. There are 3 types of neurons:
      • Motor Neuron –  carry impulses from CNS to muscles and glands,
      • Interneuron - interpret input from sensory neurons and end responses to motor neurons
      • Sensory Neuron – receive information from environment and transmit to CNS.
    • Neuroglia – is made up of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia in the CNS, and schwann cells and satellite cells in the PNS.

Development: All tissues of the body develop from the three primary germ cell layers that form the embryo:

  • Mesoderm – develops into epithelial tissue, connective tissue and muscle tissue.
  • Ectoderm - develops into nervous tissue and epithelial tissue.
  • Endoderm – develops into epithelial tissue.

Cell Junctions:

  • Tight Junctions - Form a seal between cells, define apical and basal sides of an epithelial cell
  • Gap Junctions - An open junction between two cells, which allows ions, & small molecules to pass freely between the cells.
  • Adherens Junctions - Link actin cytoskeletal elements in two cells.
  • Desmosomes - Link keratin filaments in adjoining cells and resist shearing forces.
  • Hemidesmosomes - Anchor keratin fibers in epithelial cells to the basement membrane through integrin anchors.


Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

This tutorial covers the four main types of tissue in the human body. It also includes a description of the anatomical location of those tissues within the body.

All 4 types of tissue originate from 3 primary layers in the developing human embryo. There are a number of cell junctions used by the various tissue types for contact with surrounding cells and the basement membrane, communication and for structural integrity. 


Tutorial Features:

Specific Tutorial Features:

  • A detailed description of the epithelial tissue in the body is presented including a histological description, subtype classification and location within organs and glands and the function.

Series Features:

  • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts
  • Examples given throughout to illustrate how the concepts apply.
    A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:

The four types of tissue in the human body: A tissue is a group of cells that is from similar embryological origin and is specialized for a particular function. Four types: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous.

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

Development

Cell Junctions

Epithelial Tissue

  • General Aspects
  • Two Sub-types

Glandular Epithelium

Connective Tissue and Cartilage:

  • Connective tissue
  • Hyaline cartilage
  • Elastic cartilage
  • Fibrous cartilage

Tissues of the Human Body:

  • Muscle Tissue
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Cardiac muscle
  • Smooth muscle

See all 24 lessons in Anatomy and Physiology, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:  Teach Yourself Anatomy and Physiology Visually in 24 Hours


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