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The Muscular System

Topic Review on "Title":

Muscle Naming System: Muscles are named, based on various characteristics.

  • Location: muscles are named based on location, such as the tibialis anterior muscle, which is located near the front of the tibia bone.
  • Size: muscles are named based on their size; maximus means larger and minimus means smaller. Examples include the pectoralis major and minor muscles of the chest.
  • Number of insertions: muscles are named based on the number of origins, such as the quadriceps femoris, which has 4.
Muscle lever action: Skeletal muscles produce movement by contracting and exerting force on tendons, which in turn pull on bones. When producing a body movement, the bones act as levers and the joints act as fulcrums.
  • First-class: the fulcrum is between the effort and resistance. There are only a few examples of this type in the human body.
  • Second-class: the resistance is between the fulcrum and the effort.
  • Third-class: the effort is between the fulcrum and the resistance.

Muscle Fascicles: Muscle fibers are arranged into bundles called fascicles. The pattern of fascicles effects muscle strength and motion.

  • Parallel: In this arrangement, the fascicles are parallel with the longitudinal axis of the muscle, such as the stylohyoid muscle of the neck.
  • Circular: In this arrangement, the fascicles are arranged in a circular pattern and enclose an orifice.
  • Convergent: In this arrangement, the fascicles have a broad origin and converge to a narrow insertion.
  • Pennate: In this arrangement, the fascicles are short in relation to the entire length of the muscle, and the tendons extend almost the entire length of the muscle.

Role of Muscles in Blood Pressure and Thermoregulation: Smooth muscle in the walls of precapillary arterioles contract and cause the peripheral vascular resistance to be increased, thereby increasing systemic blood pressure.

Muscles of the Human Body
  • Muscles of the head and neck: The muscles of the face and head can be divided into 3 main categories: (A) muscles of expression – orbicularis, buccinator, frontalis, occipitalis (B) muscles of chewing – masseter, temporalis and (C) muscles of the neck – sternocleidomastoid.
  • Muscles of the Neck and Shoulder: Sternocleidomastoid, Trapezius, Deltoid, Rotator Cuff: is a group of 4 muscles which hold the head of the arm bone in the shoulder joint and attach the arm to the chest.
  • Muscles of the Chest and Back: muscle of the chest includes  - Pectoralis Major, Pectoralis Minor and Intercostal Muscles. The muscles of the back include – Trapezius, Latissimus Dorsi and Serratus Posterior.
  • Muscles of the Upper Extremity: the muscles of the upper arm include – Coracobrachialis, Biceps, Brachialis and the Triceps muscle.  The muscles of the forearm include - Pronator Teres, Extensor Digitorum Communis and the Flexor Carpi Radialis. Muscles of the hand include - Palmaris Brevis, Abductor Digiti Quinti, Abductor Pollicis Brevis and the Flexor Pollicis Brevis muscle.
  • Muscles of the Lower Extremity: the muscles of the thigh and shin region include - Quadriceps Muscles, Hamstring Muscles, Tibialis Anterior, Calf Muscles and yhe Extensor Digitorum Longus muscle. The muscles of the foot include - Plantar Aponeurosis, Abductor Hallucis, Flexor Digitorum Brevis and the Abductor Digiti Quinti.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

The muscular system includes all the skeletal muscles of the head and neck, upper and lower extremities and the torso. These muscles are arranged in antagonistic pairs and work to move the limb or body part they control. Muscle use lever actions in the body to increase efficient, the joints are the fulcrums. 


Tutorial Features:

Specific Tutorial Features:

  • Examples to illustrate the groups of muscles around in the different regions of the body.
  • Detailed anatomical pictures of the different muscles and the levers they control in the human body are presented.

Series Features:

  • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts
  • Examples given throughout to illustrate how the concepts apply.
  • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:

Muscle Naming System

  • Location
  • Size
  • Number of insertions

Muscle lever action

  • First-class
  • Second-class
  • Third-class

Muscle Fascicles

  • Parallel
  • Circular
  • Convergent
  • Pennate
Role of Muscles in Blood Pressure and Thermoregulation

Muscles of the Human Body

  • Muscles of the head and neck
  • Muscles of the Neck and Shoulder
  • Muscles of the Chest and Back
  • Muscles of the Upper Extremity
  • Muscles of the Lower Extremity

See all 24 lessons in Anatomy and Physiology, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:  Teach Yourself Anatomy and Physiology Visually in 24 Hours


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