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Development and Inheritance

Topic Review on "Title":

Genes and Inheritance

Fertilization: New life begins at fertilization, when the sperm and egg combine their genetic material. Genetic material is located in the nucleus.

Chromosome ploidy: Haploid (1N) = one complete set of all the different chromosomes in one cell.  Diploid (2N) = two copies of each chromosome. Mitosis =  Duplication and division of 2N diploid cells to produce more diploid cells.

Meiosis: Human somatic cells (body cells):
23 pairs (46 total) of homologous chromosomes (2N,
22 pairs are autosomes
1 pair is sex chromosomes - X & Y
Females are XX
Males are XY
Human germ line cells (eggs and sperm):
23 chromosomes (1N, haploid)

Dominant versus recessive: Dominant allele - An allele that expresses its trait regardless of the other allele, usually designated with an upper-case letter. Recessive allele - An allele that cannot express its phenotype when a dominant allele is present, usually designated with a lower-case letter.

Laws of Segregation: During the gamete formation, the two alleles of one gene segregate independently without mixing with each other.

Independent assortment: During the gamete formation, genes from different chromosomes assort independently and combine randomly.

Punnett Square: Punnett Squares simplify genetic problem-solving to predict genotypes of progeny.

Linkage and recombination: Some traits (genes) can be linked, linked = genes on the same chromosome that are likely to be inherited together. Linked genes can cross-over and recombine at a certain frequency called the linkage ratio.


Early development: Day 0 = Ovulation of an egg from the ovary into the oviduct, Day 1 = Fertilization of the egg by a sperm, Days 2-5 = Cleavage and blastocyst formation and Day 6 or 7 = Implantation into uterus endometrium.

Blastocyst formation: Blastocyst = ball of cells with a center cavity, first evidence of cell differentiation is formation of trophoblast and inner cell mass. Blastocoel = fluid- filled cavity in the center of the blastocyst. Trophoblast = outer layer of cells, contributes to placenta. Inner cell mass = inner group of cells, contributes to embryo.

Implantation: Around Day 6-7: Blastocyst fuses to uterine endometrium and embeds itself into the tissue.

Fetal development: Trimesters = the 9-10 month pregnancy is divided into 3 trimesters. First Trimester: early embryogenesis, organogenesis begins, limb formation, heartbeat detected. Second Trimester: organ systems become more complex, fetal movement felt by mother (quickening), lung surfactant first produced.   Third Trimester: largest increase in size and weight, most organ systems functional, fetus able to survive outside mother if born prematurely.

Labor induction: Labor = delivery of fetus from uterus to external environment   Marked by regular time intervals between contractions. Dilation stage (lasts 6-12 hours), from labor onset, to complete cervical dilation, there are contractions of the uterus and rupture of amniotic sac (“my waters broke”). Expulsion stage (lasts minutes to hours) - From cervical dilation to delivery, the baby travels out through birth canal. Placental stage (lasts 5-30 minutes) - From delivery to placenta elimination Placenta must be removed from mother, called the  “afterbirth”.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

This tutorial discusses the development and inheritance of humans. Starting with DNA and working towards embryogenesis, this tutorial presents this in a detailed manner.

Tutorial Features:

Specific Tutorial Features:

  • The expression of genes into phenotypes is discussed, along with the further development into human traits.

Series Features:

  • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts
  • Examples given throughout to illustrate how the concepts apply.
  • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:

Genes and Inheritance

Chromosome ploidy
Dominant versus recessive

Laws of Segregation

Independent assortment
Punnett Square
Linkage and recombination


Early development
Blastocyst formation
Fetal development
Labor induction
Stages of labor

See all 24 lessons in Anatomy and Physiology, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:  Teach Yourself Anatomy and Physiology Visually in 24 Hours

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