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Cell Structure and Membrane

Topic Review on "Title":

Introduction
A cell is a smallest unit of an organism that can live independently.  There are two cell types: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.  Prokaryotic cells include bacteria and a large group of other microorganisms with no nucleus.  Eukaryotic cells include plant cell and animal cells, they have distinct nucleus and cell organelles.

How the cell maintains life using organelles?
The cell maintains life by assigning each responsibility to separate specialized machines. These machines are called organelles.  An organelle is a compartmentalized structure that performs a specialized function within a cell.  An animal cell contains a nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. The nucleus controls the cell function.

Organelle structures and functions
Ribosomes: make proteins for the cell.  Each ribosome is made of two protein subunits: the large subunit and the small subunit.  The units clasp around a strand of nucleic acid instructions from the nucleus. The ribosome reads the strand instructions to make proteins for the cell to use in its normal activities.
Endoplasmic reticulum: Including rough ER and smooth ER. Rough ER is found attached to the outside of the nucleus. It appears rough because of the ribosomes on its surface.  It helps the attached ribosomes in finishing protein synthesis.  Smooth ER is NOT attached to the nucleus and DOES NOT have attached ribosomes (thus smooth).  Smooth ER synthesizes carbohydrates and lipids.
The Golgi apparatus: made up of flattened, folded sacs, ships packages around the cell. 
Mitochondria: converts carbohydrates taken from food into ATP -- produce energy to power the cell. 
Lysosome: highly acidic, destroy waste to clean up the cell.

Cell Membrane: composition and function
A cell membrane is a selectively permeable structure that envelops the cell and protects the cell’s internal environment.  The cell’s membrane is made of phospholipids, which have carbohydrate heads and lipid tails. Proteins can be embedded or anchored on cell membrane.  Cell membranes provides a stable environment for cells, perform communication function among cells via the surface proteins, and selectively exchange material between a cell and its environment. 


Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

A cell is a building unit of an organism that can function independently.  The cell maintains life by assigning each responsibility to separate specialized machines. These machines are called organelles.  An organelle is a compartmentalized structure that performs a specialized function within a cell.  An animal cell contains a nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes.  The nucleus controls the cell function. Other organelles provide energy and building blocks for cells.  Cell membrane is a selectively permeable structure that envelops the cell and protects the cell’s internal environment.  The cell’s membrane is made of bi-layer of phospholipids and proteins, which can communicate with other cells or environment.


Tutorial Features:
  • Concept maps to explain the topics which are dealt with.
  • Flow-chart type of explanation on each function of a cell.
  • Elegant structure details of a cell and each organelle.
  • Detailed explanation on synthesis, delivery and function of proteins

"Title" Topic List:

Introduction

  • What is a cell
  • Type of cells
  • Requirement for life
  • A cell maintain life by assigning each responsibility to organelles

Organelle

  • What are organelles
  • Nucleus
  • Ribosomes
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Protein synthesis and delivery
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosomes
  • Summary

Cell Membrane

  • What is a cell membrane?
  • Cell membrane composition
  • Cell membrane synthesis
  • Cell membrane function

See all 24 lessons in College Biology, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:
Teach Yourself College Biology Visually in 24 Hours


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