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Genetics

Topic Review on "Title":

Introduction
Genes are functional segments of DNA molecules.  DNA stores genetics information. 

Chromosomes
Majority of DNA exist in the format of chromosomes.  One chromosome contains one long linear DNA molecule which harbors many genes.  Chromosomes are visible under a microscope during mitosis.  The structure of a chromosome contains two telomeres which are related to DNA replication and senescence, one centromere which is critical for proper segregation.  Each species contain different number of chromosomes.

Genes
Genes are sections of DNA which code for proteins; thus, genes translate from genetic code to physical appearance.  Every gene has a homologous version on a homologous chromosome.  This different version of the same gene is called an allele.  Some alleles are dominant and some alleles are recessive.  Dominant alleles will show up in the physical traits whenever it is present.  The recessive allele will not appear unless the dominant alleles are not present.  The gene alleles is known as the phenotype, and the physical traits that these genes produce is known as the phenotype.

Other Gene Interactions

Not all genes have the alleles follow dominant/recessive relationship.  Genes can also be controlled by incomplete dominance, co-dominance, and polygenic traits.  In incomplete dominance, the phenotype is the intermediate of the genotypes.  In co-dominance, the phenotype shows both the genotypes.  In polygenic traits, many genes produce one trait, so it is not easily predicted, such as height.

Meiosis
Meiosis is the process whereby gametes are produced.  The cell replicates DNA once and initiates two cell divisions, resulting in 4 1N gametes.  During the first division, homologous chromosomes pair and exchange genetic material, sister chromatids remain together, migrating to same pole.  During the second division, sister chromatids segregate and generating 1N gametes.


Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :
Genes are functional segments of DNA molecules which stores genetics information in cell nucleus.  The information can be read through transcription and translation (the Central Dogma).  RNA carries the information from DNA and passes it to protein.  Translation of RNA into protein follows genetic code which is composed of triplet nucleotides.  DNA can replicate itself according to base pairing mechanism.  Mutations can occur and cause genetic disease if it happens in germ line cells.

Tutorial Features:
  • Concept map pointing the role of genes in daily life and in biology.
  • Progressive explanation of gene structure
  • Diagram of gene interactions
  • Detailed diagram of the steps of meiosis
  • A concise summary of meiosis is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:

Chromosomes

  • Organization
  • Structure

Genes

  • Introduction
  • Homologous Chromosomes
  • Alleles
  • Dominant vs. Recessive

Punnett Squares

  • Homozygous vs. Heterozygous
  • Genotype vs. Phenotype
  • Definition
  • Example

Other Gene Interactions

  • Introduction
  • Incomplete dominance
  • Co-dominance
  • Polygenic Traits
  • Meiosis
  • Definition
  • Function
  • Steps of Meiosis

See all 24 lessons in high school biology, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:  Teach Yourself High School Biology Visually in 24 Hours



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