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Chemistry Review

Topic Review on "Title":

Atomic and Molecular structure
An atom is made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons are positively charged and they denote the atomic number. Neutrons have no electrical charge. Protons and neutrons are present in the nucleus. Electrons are negatively charged and present in the orbits surrounding the nucleus. Valence electrons are the number of electrons in the outer shell. Organic acids are those that are derived from living organisms, usually from metabolism. Esters are condensation products of carboxylic acids with the removal of water. . Isotopes have same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Loss or gain of electrons is seen in ions. Radicals have a single electron; there is no loss or gain of electrons in them. . Lewis structures are drawn using the valence electron. Each pair of electrons makes one bond.

Types of carbon molecules
Carbon molecules are of four types: Stable neutral molecule, carbanion, carbocation and radical. A stable neutral molecule has not gained or lost electrons, carbanion has gained electrons, carbocation has lost electrons and radical is neutral and has a single electron.

Stereospecificity
Stereoisomers have the same atomic formula and connectivity but differ in the 3D position of the atoms. Chiral carbon has four different groups attached.

Intramolecular bond interactions
Electronegativity is an atom’s ability to attract electrons. Bond polarity occurs when the bonding electrons are not shared equally in a covalent bond. There are mainly two types of bonding, ionic and covalent. In ionic bonding, transfer of electrons takes place. In covalent bonding, sharing of electrons occurs. It may be either polar covalent bonding or non polar covalent bonding. Bond cleavage is of two types: hemolytic- each fragment gets one electron, radicals are formed. Heterolytic – one fragment gets both electrons and the other fragment gets no electrons, ions are formed.

Intermolecular forces
Intermolecular forces are of three types: London dispersion forces – between non polar molecules, dipole-dipole forces between polar molecules, hydrogen bonding between molecules with OH, -NH or HF.


Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

An atom is made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Valence electrons are the number of electrons in the outer shell. Isotopes have same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Loss or gain of electrons is seen in ions. Radicals have a single electron; there is no loss or gain of electrons in them. Lewis structures are drawn using the valence electron. Each pair of electrons makes one bond. Carbon molecules are of four types – Stable neutral molecule, carbanion, carbocation and radical. Stereoisomers have the same atomic formula and connectivity but differ in the 3D position of the atoms. Chiral carbon has four different groups attached. Electronegativity is an atom’s ability to attract electrons. Bond polarity occurs when the bonding electrons are not shared equally in a covalent bond. Intermolecular forces are of three types: London dispersion forces – between non polar molecules, dipole-dipole forces between polar molecules, hydrogen bonding between molecules with OH, -NH or HF.


Tutorial Features:
  • Colorful flow charts which classify different aspects of isotopes, ions and radicals.
  • Animated diagrams to depict atomic structures with electrons, protons and neutrons.
  • Position of carbon in the period table is shown with other elements.
  • Different type of carbon molecules are depicted with flow charts.
  • Concept of Chirality and achiral objects is explained with pictures.

"Title" Topic List:

Atomic and Molecular structure

  • Atomic structure
  • Valence electrons
  • Organic acids and esters
  • Isotopes, ions and radicals
  • Lewis structure
  • Formal chargesα

Types of carbon molecules

  • Stable neutral molecules
  • Carbanions
  • Carbocations
  • Radicals
  • Carbon bonds

Stereospecificity

  • Stereochemistry overview
  • Chirality
  • Stereoisomers

Intramolecular bond interactions

  • Electronegativity
  • Bond polarity
  • Bonding
  • Bond breaking

Intermolecular forces

  • London dispersion forces
  • Dipole-dipole forces
  • Hydrogen bonding


See all 24 lessons in college chemistry, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:
Teach Yourself Biochemistry Visually in 24 Hours

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