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Nucleic Acids

Topic Review on "Title":

Introduction
Nucleic acids are polymers of ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides and are associated with the nucleus of a cell. DNA and RNA are the important nucleic acids found in the cells.

Structure
A nucleotide contains a nitrogenous base, phosphate group and sugar. An organic molecule containing a nitrogenous base called purine or pyrimidine is present in nucleotide. Purines are adenine or guanine and pyrimidines are cytosine, thymine or Uracil. Depending on the number of phosphate groups present in nucleotides, they are known as nucleotide monophosphates, diphosphates or triphosphates.

Types of nucleic acids
There are two types of nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid.

DNA
DNA is a very long thread like molecule made up of a very large number of deoxyribonucleotides joined together. DNA is a linear double stranded polymer made up of deoxyribonucleotides. Deoxyribonucleotide is made up of a sugar called deoxyribose, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. DNA is located in the nucleus. Nucleotides are joined together by a phosphodiester bond in a condensation reaction. Double helix is formed when two strands are joined together by hydrogen bonds. Double helix is anti parallel. Both the stands run in opposite direction and are parallel to each other.

RNA
RNA is a linear polymer in which nucleotides are linked together by means of phosphodiester bridges. It does not form a double helix like DNA. There are three different types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. Most RNA molecules usually have secondary structure, consisting of stem and loop domains. mRNA is linear in structure, variable in size, has a poly A tail and acts as a template for protein synthesis. tRNA has a clover leaf structure. rRNA is large in size and is associated with protein. All the three types of RNA are associated in the production of a protein.


Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
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Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

Nucleic acids are polymers of ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides and are associated with the nucleus of a cell. There are two types of nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid. A nucleotide contains a nitrogenous base, phosphate group and sugar. There are two types of nucleotides present in nucleic acids. They are: deoxyribonucleotide and ribonucleotide. DNA is a linear double stranded polymer made up of deoxyribonucleotides. RNA is a linear polymer in which nucleotides are linked together by means of phosphodiester bridges. It does not form a double helix like DNA. There are three different types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.


Tutorial Features:
  • Flowchart showing general classification of biomolecules.
  • Concept map of nucleic acids is shown.
  • Animated structures of nucleotides are given.
  • Names of nucleotides are listed.
  • Double helical structure of DNA is described with animated diagrams.

"Title" Topic List:

Introduction

  • Definition
  • Nucleotide
  • Types

Structure

  • Nucleotide
  • Names of nucleotides
  • Formation of a dinucleotide

Types of nucleic acids

  • DNA
  • RNA

DNA

  • Definition
  • Location
  • Structure of DNA
  • Formation of a single helix
  • Formation of a double helix
  • Formation of a polynucleotide
  • Notation of nucleic acids
  • Base pairing and complementarity
  • Complementarity of double helix
  • Directionality of helix
  • Double helix is anti parallel
  • Features of double helix
  • Facts about DNA

RNA

  • Definition
  • Types
  • Structure
  • mRNA
  • tRNA
  • Relationship between RNAs
  • From DNA to protein


See all 24 lessons in college chemistry, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:
Teach Yourself Biochemistry Visually in 24 Hours

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