Study of heat changes.
Proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles. The higher the temperature the faster the molecules move.
Linear Expansion Coefficient (α):
Linear expansion of a material per C increase in temperature.
Volume Expansion Coefficient (ß):
Volume expansion of a material per C increase in temperature.
Energy is absorbed into the system from the surroundings.
Energy is released from the system into the surroundings.
Specific Heat Capacity (Cp):
Amount of energy that 1 gram of material can absorb before increasing in temperature. Cp for water: 4.18 J or 1.00 cal
Enthalpy of fusion (Lfus):
Energy needed to break enough intermolecular forces to change a solid into a liquid
Enthalpy of vaporization (Lvap):
Energy needed to break the intermolecular forces to change a liquid into a gas.
Two objects at different temperatures will come to the same temperature when placed together.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:
Objects in thermal equilibrium are at the same temperature. Objects in contact will eventually come to thermal equilibrium.
1st Law of Thermodynamics (Law of Conservation of Energy):
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed in a chemical or physical process.
Energy lost/gained from the system is equal & opposite to that lost/gaines from the surroundings
Disorder or random-ness
2nd Law of Thermodynamics:
The total entropy of the universe can never decrease.
An ideal heat engine consisting of a cylinder and piston that operates between two temperatures or heat reservoirs.