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Temperature and Heat

Topic Review on "Title":

Temperature (T):
Proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles.  The higher the temperature the faster the molecules move.

 Kelvin (K):
Temperature scale used in gas calculations.  Has an absolute zero.   °C + 273 = K

 Pressure:
Force of gas molecules colliding with surfaces

 Atmospheric pressure:
Pressure due to the layers of air in the atmosphere

 Standard Temperature and pressure:
1 atm (or anything it’s equal to) and 0°C (273 K)

Linear Expansion Coefficient (α): 
Linear expansion of a material per °C increase in temperature.

 Volume Expansion Coefficient (ß):
Volume expansion of a material per °C increase in temperature.

 Endothermic reaction:
Energy is absorbed into the system from the surroundings.

 Exothermic reaction:
Energy is released from the system into the surroundings.

 Specific Heat Capacity (Cp):
Amount of energy that 1 gram of material can absorb before increasing in temperature.          Cp for water: 4.18 J or 1.00 cal

 Enthalpy of fusion (Lfus):
Energy needed to break enough intermolecular forces to change a solid into a liquid

 Enthalpy of vaporization (Lvap):
Energy needed to break the intermolecular forces to change a liquid into a gas.

 Thermal Equilibrium: 
Two objects at different temperatures will come to the same temperature when placed together.


Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

This tutorial describes gas in a variety of ways.  Initially the role of temperature is described.  As a gas is heated, it moves more and possesses more kinetic energy.  It may expand depending upon the container.  There are a variety of mathematical ways to describe the motion and behavior of gases. 

Next, the expansion effects of heat are described.  Materials can expand linearly, or over some volume. Next, the some methods of describing heat added to materials are described.  For example, specific heat tells the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a particular substance.  Heats of vaporization and fusion describe the heat needed for phase changes.


Tutorial Features:

Specific Tutorial Features:

  • Graphic organizers to illustrate concept relationships.
  • Example problems with notions and hints for difficult sections.
  • Animated diagrams showing thermal processes

 Series Features:

  • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts
  • Animated examples—worked out step by step
  • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:

Temperature Scales

Fahrenheit
Celsius
Kelvin and absolute zero

Thermal Expansion

Expansion, linear and volume
Thermometers and thermostats

Energy in thermal processes

Heat and internal energy equation
State functions
Specific heat and heat capacity
Endothermic and exothermic
Calorimetry
Phase changes



See all 24 lessons in high school  physics, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:
Teach Yourself High School Physics Visually in 24 Hours

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